Pathology Insights

Breast Carcinoma Versus Benign Breast Lesions Diagnosed by Fine Needle Aspiration and Core Biopsies: Types, Age, Risk Factors, and Hormonal Receptors Status in Jordan

Sohaib Abu-Farsakh, M.D, Hussam Abu-Farsakh, M.D


Introduction: Most studies regarding breast carcinoma risk factors compared it to the general population. In this study, we
compare breast carcinoma risk factors to benign breast lesions.

Material and Methods: Core breast biopsies were performed from 610 patients. History of number of kids, lactation, pills
intake, abortions, smoking, menarche age, and age at first pregnancy was taken.

Results: Breast carcinoma cases were 43% of all cases and the average age was 50 vs. 39 years for benign breast lesions.
Twenty-four percent of breast carcinoma cases were <40 years of age. Axillary lymph nodes showed metastatic carcinoma
in 43% of breast carcinoma cases. Family history was positive in 20% of breast carcinoma cases vs. 30% of benign breast
lesions. Thirty-two percent did not lactate in breast carcinoma cases vs. 20% in benign breast lesions (P<0.05). No difference
was present between the two groups regarding: number of kids (4.2 vs. 3.9), percentage of those having kids (77% vs. 74%),
age of menarche (13.2 vs. 12.9 years), and age at first pregnancy (22.2 vs. 21.5 years). Regarding lactation history, 32% of
breast carcinoma patients did not lactate vs. 20% of patients with a benign breast lesion (P < 0.05). Duration of lactation was
similar in both groups. Other differences between the two groups (breast carcinoma cases vs. benign breast lesions) were seen
in contraceptive pills (33% vs. 14%, P < 0.009), smoking (number of smokers 21% vs 14%, P < 0.05), and obesity. Cancer types were ductal: 83%, lobular: 10%, CIS: 5%, others: 2%.

Conclusions: Lactation is a protective factor. No differences were seen in: number of kids, menarche age, and age at first
pregnancy. Factors associated with breast carcinoma were cigarette smoking, hormonal pills intake, and obesity. Family history
of breast carcinoma was associated more with benign lesions, probably due to that patients with positive family history were
more worried about any breast lump than other people.


breast carcinoma risk factors in Jordan, types of breast carcinoma, core biopsy

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